The internal marriage tax of women M.B.A.s


first_imgFrom the outside, female students at elite business schools often appear to have it all together. They’re smart, driven, confident, hard-working, successful, and poised to enter the business world with almost unlimited career possibilities.It’s certainly a long way from the days when women were barred from top graduate schools and college “co-eds” were suspected of pursuing higher education primarily to find husbands and earn so-called “MRS degrees.” Or, then again, is it?A recent study found that a majority of single female M.B.A. students deliberately downplayed their ambitions and avoided acting to enhance their careers if they thought that might torpedo their marriage prospects with classmates or co-workers.In two experiments last fall, researchers first asked students newly admitted to an unnamed elite M.B.A. program to answer questions about themselves and their career preferences. Their answers, they were told, would be used to help place them in summer internships, a vital stepping stone to good jobs after graduation.The survey asked male and female students to rate their own levels of ambition, competitiveness, and assertiveness and to indicate their desired salaries, and their willingness to travel and to work long hours. Students were also asked whether they were single or in a relationship. Some were told their answers would be shared with classmates, while others were told that only staff at the career center would see their responses.When women thought their answers would be seen only by career counselors, they desired slightly smaller paychecks than the men, but expressed equal willingness to work long hours and travel frequently, two important prerequisites for entry into competitive fields such as consulting and investment banking.But when told that classmates would see their answers, the single women downshifted, saying they would accept $18,000 a year less in salary, travel seven fewer days per month, and work four fewer hours per week than the female students who thought their answers would remain private. The second group also rated themselves less ambitious and less leadership-oriented — responses that undermine a student’s employment options.“Single women are changing their answers because they think it’s going to hurt them in the marriage market,” said Amanda Pallais, the Paul Sack Associate Professor of Political Economy and Social Studies at the Faculty of Arts and Sciences (FAS), one of the working paper’s authors. “They’re worried that their actions are sending a signal about their marriageability … Because they’re interested potentially in dating these men, they would not want to send that signal of ambition or assertiveness.”On the other hand, male students and women in relationships did not change their answers when told classmates could see their replies.“When we ask women and men and we say ‘only the career office is going to see this,’ women are willing to work as long as men, they’re willing to travel as much as men. The differences only come up because [unattached women] think their classmates will see these answers,” she said.In a related survey, M.B.A. students were asked if, during the two years of working life before business school, they had avoided doing things that might have helped their careers — like speaking up at meetings, offering to lead sales pitches, seeking out team leadership roles, or asking for raises or promotions — because they worried that would make them appear too ambitious or assertive.Overall, 73 percent of single women said that they had dodged at least one of these actions, compared with 60 percent of attached women, 43 percent of single men, and 50 percent of attached men.Single women also chose less-demanding jobs during a hypothetical career selection questionnaire when told that their male peers, especially the single ones, would see and discuss their answers. When they were told that only female peers would learn their responses, 68 percent of single women said they preferred higher-salary jobs with longer hours, but when male peers would see them, that number dropped by 26 percentage points.The women’s fears aren’t imaginary. Prior research showed that men, even those who are highly educated and successful, typically preferred female romantic partners who were less successful and ambitious than they are. A 2015 Harvard Business School (HBS) alumni survey showed that the M.B.A. program is a fertile place for students to pair off. Of alumni between ages 25 and 30 (the average age of M.B.A.s), 31 percent of married women and 16 percent of married men reported wedding an HBS alum.Pallais said researchers strongly suspected that some women might feel it necessary to make a tradeoff in order to find a suitable mate, minimizing actions that signal ambition and assertiveness for fear of being deemed less desirable on the marriage market.“We started this project because we thought that this … was likely happening, that single women have these dual incentives and they were balancing them. But we were surprised how big the effects are,” said Pallais. “These are already women who are ambitious, they’ve succeeded a lot, they’ve already invested a lot in their careers to get to this stage, so maybe it’s extra surprising that we see this here.”Robin J. Ely, the Diane Doerge Wilson Professor of Business Administration at HBS, called the findings “disheartening” but not entirely surprising. Historically, women have faced “a choice between being seen as competent and being liked,” often known as a “double bind,” particularly in male-dominated occupations. The study is also consistent with and echoes a “gender grade gap that existed at HBS for many years, but has now closed.” Companies that hire employees to fit in run the risk of their falling down, professor says One positive note is that the study pierces a long-held myth about gender and career.“I think it’s important to see these findings as casting doubt on the belief that women are intrinsically less ambitious than men, showing instead that whether and how they express their ambition is context-dependent,” said Ely, who studies gender and race relations in organizations. “It seems that women have no trouble claiming their ambitions and being willing to do what it takes to get ahead (for better or for worse) when they feel that doing so will not exact a social cost.”If female M.B.A.s feel pressure to minimize their career ambitions in front of men, it’s not hard to imagine that other single women probably do too and may opt out of activities like taking an advanced high school math class, pursuing a STEM degree, or starting a business, said Pallais. To what extent this is happening in other cohorts is an area that merits further investigation, she added.So what can be done?Since changing men’s marriage preferences seems unlikely, Pallais suggests one way to neutralize the perceived social stigma attached to women who speak out in class is for instructors to consider calling on students rather than waiting for volunteers. “In cold calling, there’s no longer these signals of ambition because the women aren’t volunteering to speak,” they’re simply responding to requests, she said.It’s a practice that faculty already engage in at HBS, where gender dynamics in the classroom have come under greater scrutiny in recent years.“My sense is that simply sharing these findings with students would mitigate any tendency on the part of single women to conform to gender stereotypes in the classroom,” said Ely. “I suspect that if they were making more conscious choices about their actions, they would not underplay their ambitions.” Think different, maybe Relatedlast_img read more

New digital inspections for renters and buyers to combat COVID-19


first_img MORE: The perfect place to self-isolate Digital Inspections mean renters and buyers can “walk through” the home of their choice no matter where they are during these unprecedented times.Renters and homebuyers will still be able to conduct inspections of homes with the launch of new digital inspections via after major COVID-19 restrictions were put in place by the Prime Minister Scott Morrison. Video Player is loading.Play VideoPlayNext playlist itemMuteCurrent Time 0:00/Duration 0:52Loaded: 0%Stream Type LIVESeek to live, currently playing liveLIVERemaining Time -0:52 Playback Rate1xChaptersChaptersDescriptionsdescriptions off, selectedCaptionscaptions settings, opens captions settings dialogcaptions off, selectedQuality Levels720p720pHD540p540p360p360p270p270pAutoA, selectedAudio Tracken (Main), selectedFullscreenThis is a modal window.Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window.TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal DialogEnd of dialog window.This is a modal window. This modal can be closed by pressing the Escape key or activating the close button.Close Modal DialogThis is a modal window. This modal can be closed by pressing the Escape key or activating the close button.PlayMuteCurrent Time 0:00/Duration 0:00Loaded: 0%Stream Type LIVESeek to live, currently playing liveLIVERemaining Time -0:00 Playback Rate1xFullscreenWays of limiting the spread of COVID-19 at home00:53More from newsCOVID-19 renovation boom: How much Aussies are spending to give their houses a facelift during the pandemic3 days agoWhizzkid buys almost one property a month during COVID-197 days ago Andrew Winter’s discontent leads to bulldozers announced the launch hours after Mr Morrison restricted group open-for-inspections alongside a raft of activities being curbed to help Australia flatten the spread of coronavirus. Digital Inspections would see real estate agents use videos – either shot professional or even via iPhone or mobile phone walk-throughs – which would be available to renters and buyers via ‘Inspections’ sections of Buy and Rent listings on REA Group chief sales officer, Kul Singh said it was the first of the new features that would be rolled out to support the property market through unprecedented times.“We want our customers and consumers to know that the property market is still open for business and inspections remain open online. We’re doing everything in our power to support the long-term success of the industry.” “Digital Inspections is the first of our new features to help the market adapt to the evolving conditions. We all have a responsibility to flatten the curve when it comes to the spread of COVID-19 and we are focused on helping our customers continue to operate their businesses in a safe environment.”REA Group GM Core Products Tim Bradley said turnaround time for the new feature was key to help consumers.“We mobilised a small team to bring this feature to market as quickly as possible to help our customers successfully adapt to the rapidly changing conditions.”“Digital Inspections is a really user friendly feature – the videos can be professional or even a walk-through taken on a phone. It’s the perfect solution to taking buyers and renters on a digital tour of properties to help them discover features they would normally see when attending a traditional open-for-inspection.”The feature is set to go live on the app in coming days. FOLLOW SOPHIE FOSTER ON TWITTER Sweeping changes for real estate off coronavirus restrictionslast_img read more

NFL delivers Spurs new £10m financial blow


first_img Promoted Content12 Flicks That Almost Ended Their Stars’ Careers18 Cities With Neverending Tourist-FlowInsane 3D Spraying Skills Turn In Incredible Street ArtCouples Who Celebrated Their Union In A Unique, Unforgettable WayThe 18 Most Visited Cities In The WorldWorld’s Most Delicious FoodsWhich Country Is The Most Romantic In The World?Everything You Need To Know About Asteroid Armageddon2020 Tattoo Trends: Here’s What You’ll See This YearDisney’s Live-Action Simba Was Based On The Cutest Lion Cub EverWho’s The Best Car Manufacturer Of All Time?6 Extreme Facts About Hurricanes But NFL bosses are understood to have now decided that the four matches slated for London, plus one set to be played in Mexico City, will now stay on US soil as a result of the coronavirus crisis. read also:Mourinho reveals the only time he shed tears after a defeat It will make 2020 the first year since 2006 that has not featured an NFL game in London. FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 Tottenham Hotspurs face a heavy financial blow with the NFL to cancel their planned London games. Jose Mourinho agreed to take charge at Liverpool in 2004 before Chelsea hijacked the deal The Sun of UK says Spurs ace a further £10million cash blow with NFL chiefs set to cancel this year’s four “London Games”. Spurs had capacity 60,000-plus crowds for their first two games on the sunken artificial pitch at the Tottenham Hotspur Stadium, with gridiron bosses hailing the spectacular new venue.Advertisementcenter_img Loading… last_img read more